Is machine vision able to work with transparent or translucent objects?
The broad answer is "yes.” However, this is an imaging and lighting question. The issue will be "can the required features be illuminated and imaged so that there is enough contrast to use machine vision tools on those features?" I don't know the specifics of your application, but I have done a lot of imaging of transparent objects for defect detection or measurement with good success.
This was adapted from the Vision Systems Design webcast “Introduction to machine vision: Definitions, components, benefits, applications,” presented by David Dechow, Principal Vision Systems Architect, Integro Technologies. View archived and upcoming webcasts here.